CERTIFICATES AND DOCUMENTS

Certificates and Documents Lesson by wifiCFI


Recreational Pilot

Eligibility Requirements:

Be at least 17 years old.

Be able to read, write, speak, and understand English.

Pass the required knowledge exam.

Pass the required practical exam.

Hold either a student pilot or sport pilot certificate.


Aeronautical Knowledge:

Must receive and log ground training on the following subject matter: Applicable Federal Aviation Regulations

Accident recording requirements of the NTSB

Use of applicable portions of the AIM and FAA Advisory Circulars

Use of charts for VFR navigation with the aid of a magnetic compass

Recognition of critical weather situations

Safe and efficient operation of aircraft to include:

Collision avoidance

Wake turbulence

Effects of density altitude on aircraft performance

Weight and balance computations

Principles of aerodynamics, powerplants, and aircraft systems

Stall/spin awareness and recovery techniques

Aeronautical decision making and judgement

Preflight actions that include:

Runway lengths, takeoff and landing distances, weather reports and forecasts, and fuel requirements

How to plan for alternatives

Flight Training:

Must receive and log ground and flight training on the following subject matter:

Preflight procedures

Airport operations

Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds

Performance maneuvers

Ground reference maneuvers

Navigation

Slow flight and stalls

Emergency procedures

Postflight procedures

Aeronautical Experience Required: 30 hours of flight time that includes:

15 hours of flight training from an authorized instructor

2 hours of flight training en-route to an airport more than 25nm from the airport of training to include:

3 takeoffs and landings at that airport

3 hours of solo flight time

3 hours of flight training from an authorized instructor within the preceding 2 calendar months

Privileges and Limitations: Carry no more than 1 passenger

Not pay less than the pro-rata share of the flight

Act as PIC on a flight within 50nm from the point of departure if the person has:

Received ground and flight training for takeoff, departure, arrival, and landing procedures at the departure airport;

Received ground and flight training for the area, terrain, and aids to navigation that are in the vicinity of the departure airport;

Been found proficient to operate the aircraft at the departure airport and the area within 50 nautical miles from that airport; and

Received from an authorized instructor a logbook endorsement, which is carried in the person's possession in the aircraft, that permits flight within 50 nautical miles from the departure airport.

Act as PIC on a flight greater than 50nm from the point of departure if the person has:

Received ground and flight training from an authorized instructor on the cross-country training requirements 

Been found proficient in cross-country flying; and

Received from an authorized instructor a logbook endorsement, which is carried on the person's possession in the aircraft, that certifies the person has received and been found proficient in the cross-country training requirements

A person who holds a recreational pilot certificate may act as pilot in command of an aircraft in Class B, C, and D airspace, at an airport located in Class B, C, or D airspace, and to, from, through, or at an airport having an operational control tower, provided that person has:

Received and logged ground and flight training from an authorized instructor on the following aeronautical knowledge areas and areas of operation, as appropriate to the aircraft rating held:

The use of radios, communications, navigation system and facilities, and radar services.

Operations at airports with an operating control tower to include three takeoffs and landings to a full stop, with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern at an airport with an operating control tower.

Applicable flight rules of part 91 of this chapter for operations in Class B, C, and D airspace and air traffic control clearances;

Been found proficient in those aeronautical knowledge areas and areas of operation specified

Received from an authorized instructor a logbook endorsement, which is carried on the person's possession or readily accessible in the aircraft, that certifies the person has received and been found proficient in those aeronautical knowledge areas and areas of operation

A recreational pilot may not act as pilot in command of an aircraft:

That is certificated:

For more than four occupants;

With more than one powerplant;

With a powerplant of more than 180 horsepower, except aircraft certificated in the rotorcraft category; or

With retractable landing gear;

That is classified as a multiengine airplane, powered-lift, glider, airship, balloon, powered parachute, or weight-shift-control aircraft;

That is carrying a passenger or property for compensation or hire;

For compensation or hire;

In furtherance of a business;

Between sunset and sunrise;

In Class A, B, C, and D airspace, at an airport located in Class B, C, or D airspace, or to, from, through, or at an airport having an operational control tower;

At an altitude of more than 10,000 feet MSL or 2,000 feet AGL, whichever is higher;

When the flight or surface visibility is less than 3 statute miles;

Without visual reference to the surface;

On a flight outside the United States, unless authorized by the country in which the flight is conducted;

To demonstrate that aircraft in flight as an aircraft salesperson to a prospective buyer;

That is used in a passenger-carrying airlift and sponsored by a charitable organization; and

That is towing any object.

A recreational pilot may not act as a pilot flight crewmember on any aircraft for which more than one pilot is required by the type certificate of the aircraft or the regulations under which the flight is conducted, except when:

Receiving flight training from a person authorized to provide flight training on board an airship; and

No person other than a required flight crewmember is carried on the aircraft.

A person who holds a recreational pilot certificate, has logged fewer than 400 flight hours, and has not logged pilot-in-command time in an aircraft within the 180 days preceding the flight shall not act as pilot in command of an aircraft until the pilot receives flight training and a logbook endorsement from an authorized instructor, and the instructor certifies that the person is proficient to act as pilot in command of the aircraft.

A recreational pilot may act as pilot in command of an aircraft without holding a medical certificate.

Recency Requirements: To act as PIC:

Must complete a flight review every 24 calendar months


To act as PIC carrying passengers:

No person may act as a pilot in command of an aircraft carrying passengers or of an aircraft certificated for more than one pilot flight crewmember unless that person has made at least three takeoffs and three landings within the preceding 90 days, and

The person acted as the sole manipulator of the flight controls; and

The required takeoffs and landings were performed in an aircraft of the same category, class, and type


Private Pilot Eligibility Requirements: Be at least 17 years old.

Be able to read, write, speak, and understand English.

Pass the required knowledge exam.

Pass the required practical exam.

Hold either a student pilot, sport pilot certificate, or recreational pilot certificate.

Aeronautical Knowledge:

Must receive and log ground training on the following subject matter: Applicable Federal Aviation Regulations

Accident recording requirements of the NTSB

Use of applicable portions of the AIM and FAA Advisory Circulars

Use of charts for VFR navigation with the aid of a magnetic compass

Recognition of critical weather situations

Safe and efficient operation of aircraft to include:

Collision avoidance

Wake turbulence

Effects of density altitude on aircraft performance

Weight and balance computations

Principles of aerodynamics, powerplants, and aircraft systems

Stall/spin awareness and recovery techniques

Aeronautical decision making and judgement

Preflight actions that include:

Runway lengths, takeoff and landing distances, weather reports and forecasts, and fuel requirements

How to plan for alternatives


Flight Training:

Must receive and log ground and flight training on the following subject matter: Preflight Preparation

Preflight procedures

Airport operations

Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds

Performance maneuvers

Ground reference maneuvers

Navigation

Slow flight and stalls

Basic instrument maneuvers

Emergency procedures

Night operations

Postflight procedures

Aeronautical Experience Required: 40 hours total flight time that includes:

20 hours of flight instruction from an authorized instructor that includes:

3 hours of cross country

3 hours of night flight that includes:

1 cross country flight over 100nm total distance

10 takeoffs and landings to a full stop

3 hours simulated instrument flight

3 hours in the previous 2 calendar months

10 hours of solo flight time that includes:

5 hours cross country

One solo cross country flight of 150 nautical miles total distance, with full-stop landings at three points, and one segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line distance of more than 50 nautical miles between the takeoff and landing locations

Three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport with an operating control tower.

Privileges and Limitations:

No person who holds a private pilot certificate may act as pilot in command of an aircraft that is carrying passengers or property for compensation or hire; nor may that person, for compensation or hire, act as pilot in command of an aircraft.

A private pilot may, for compensation or hire, act as pilot in command of an aircraft in connection with any business or employment if:

The flight is only incidental to that business or employment

The aircraft does not carry passengers or property for compensation or hire.

A private pilot may not pay less than the pro rata share of the operating expenses of a flight with passengers

A private pilot may act as pilot in command of a charitable, nonprofit, or community event flight

A private pilot may be reimbursed for aircraft operating expenses that are directly related to search and location operations, provided the expenses involve only fuel, oil, airport expenditures, or rental fees, and the operation is sanctioned and under the direction and control of:

A local, State, or Federal agency

An organization that conducts search and location operations.

A private pilot who is an aircraft salesman and who has at least 200 hours of logged flight time may demonstrate an aircraft in flight to a prospective buyer.

A private pilot who meets the requirements of §61.69 may act as a pilot in command of an aircraft towing a glider or unpowered ultralight vehicle.

A private pilot may act as pilot in command for the purpose of conducting a production flight test in a light-sport aircraft intended for certification in the light-sport category under §21.190 of this chapter, provided that:

The aircraft is a powered parachute or a weight-shift-control aircraft

The person has at least 100 hours of pilot-in-command time in the category and class of aircraft flown

The person is familiar with the processes and procedures applicable to the conduct of production flight testing, to include operations conducted under a special flight permit and any associated operating limitations.

A private pilot may act as pilot in command of an aircraft without holding a medical certificate issued under part 67 of this chapter provided the pilot holds a valid U.S. driver's license, meets the requirements of §61.23(c)(3), and complies with this section and all of the following conditions and limitations:

The aircraft is authorized to carry not more than 6 occupants, has a maximum takeoff weight of not more than 6,000 pounds, and is operated with no more than five passengers on board; and

The flight, including each portion of the flight, is not carried out:

At an altitude that is more than 18,000 feet above mean sea level;

Outside the United States unless authorized by the country in which the flight is conducted; or at an indicated airspeed exceeding 250 knots; and

The pilot has available in his or her logbook:

The completed medical examination checklist required under §68.7 of this chapter; and

The certificate of course completion required under §61.23(c)(3).

Recency Requirements: To act as PIC:

Must complete a flight review every 24 calendar months


To act as PIC carrying passengers:

No person may act as a pilot in command of an aircraft carrying passengers or of an aircraft certificated for more than one pilot flight crewmember unless that person has made at least three takeoffs and three landings within the preceding 90 days, and

The person acted as the sole manipulator of the flight controls; and

The required takeoffs and landings were performed in an aircraft of the same category, class, and type


To act as PIC carrying passengers at night:

No person may act as pilot in command of an aircraft carrying passengers during the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunrise, unless within the preceding 90 days that person has made at least three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop during the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunrise, and

That person acted as sole manipulator of the flight controls; and

The required takeoffs and landings were performed in an aircraft of the same category, class, and type

Commercial Pilot Eligibility Requirements: Be at least 18 years old.

Be able to read, write, speak, and understand English.

Pass the required knowledge exam.

Pass the required practical exam.

Hold at least a Private Pilot Certificate.

Aeronautical Knowledge:

Must receive and log ground training on the following subject matter: Applicable Federal Aviation Regulations

Accident recording requirements of the NTSB

Basic aerodynamics and the principles of flight

Meteorology and critical weather situations

Safe and efficient aircraft operation

Weight and balance computations

Use of performance charts

Effects of exceeding aircraft performance limitations

Use of aeronautical charts and a magnetic compass for pilotage and dead reckoning

Use of air navigation facilities

Aeronautical decision making and judgement

Principles and functions of aircraft systems

Maneuvers, procedures, and emergency operations

Night and high altitude operations

Procedures for operating in the National Airspace System

Flight Training:

Must receive and log ground and flight training on the following subject matter:

Preflight preparation;

Preflight procedures;

Airport and seaplane base operations;

Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;

Performance maneuvers;

Ground reference maneuvers;

Navigation;

Slow flight and stalls;

Emergency operations;

High-altitude operations; and

Postflight procedures.

Aeronautical Experience Required: 250 hours total flight time that consists of:

100 hours in powered aircraft, of which 50 must be in airplanes

100 hours PIC that consists of:

50 hours in airplanes

50 hours cross country flight, of which 10 must be in airplanes

20 hours of training on the areas of operation listed in 61.127b1 that consists of

10 hours of instrument training, of which 5 hours must be in a single engine airplane

10 hours of training in a complex airplane

One 2 hour day cross country flight that is a straight line distance of at least 100nm

One 2 hour night cross country flight that is a straight line distance of at least 100nm

3 hours in a single engine airplane in the preceding 2 calendar months

10 hours solo flight time or 10 hours acting as PIC that consists of:

One cross country flight of 300nm total distance with landings at 3 different points, one of which is a straight line distance of at least 250nm from the original point of departure.

5 hours in night VFR conditions with 10 takeoffs and landings at an airport with an operating control tower.

Privileges and Limitations A person who holds a commercial pilot certificate may act as pilot in command of an aircraft:

Carrying persons or property for compensation or hire, provided the person is qualified in accordance with this part and with the applicable parts of this chapter that apply to the operation; and

For compensation or hire, provided the person is qualified in accordance with this part and with the applicable parts of this chapter that apply to the operation.

A person who applies for a commercial pilot certificate with an airplane category or powered-lift category rating and does not hold an instrument rating in the same category and class will be issued a commercial pilot certificate that contains the limitation, “The carriage of passengers for hire in (airplanes) (powered-lifts) on cross-country flights in excess of 50 nautical miles or at night is prohibited.”

Recency Requirements: To act as PIC:

Must complete a flight review every 24 calendar months

To act as PIC carrying passengers:

No person may act as a pilot in command of an aircraft carrying passengers or of an aircraft certificated for more than one pilot flight crewmember unless that person has made at least three takeoffs and three landings within the preceding 90 days, and

The person acted as the sole manipulator of the flight controls; and

The required takeoffs and landings were performed in an aircraft of the same category, class, and type


To act as PIC carrying passengers at night:

No person may act as pilot in command of an aircraft carrying passengers during the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunrise, unless within the preceding 90 days that person has made at least three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop during the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunrise, and

That person acted as sole manipulator of the flight controls; and

The required takeoffs and landings were performed in an aircraft of the same category, class, and type


Medical Certificates

Pilots must have a medical certificate, with few exceptions (gliders), to exercise the privileges of their airmen certificates.

However, once you obtain a medical you still must comply with FAR 61.53 which states “a pilot cannot act as a crewmember on an aircraft if they know, or have reason to know, of any medical condition that would make them unsafe to operate an aircraft.”

Medical certificates are issued after a routine medical exam. The exam is conducted by an FAA designated doctor called an Aviation Medical Examiner (AME).

Where can you find a list of AMEs in your area?

https://www.faa.gov/pilots/amelocator/amedirectory

A student pilot must obtain a medical certificate prior to solo flight operations.

The 1st Class Medical

Privileges

Must have a 1st class medical to exercise the privileges of an ATP certificate

Privilege Durations

>40 years old = 6 calendar months

<40 years old = 12 calendar months

The 2nd Class Medical

Privileges

Must have a 2nd class medical to exercise the privileges of a CAX certificate

Privilege Durations

>40 years old = 12 calendar months

<40 years old = 12 calendar months

The 3rd Class Medical

Privileges

Must have a 3rd class medical to perform solo flight as a student, act as PIC with a PPL, or to take a checkride exam for any pilot certificate.

Privilege Durations

>40 years old = 24 calendar months

<40 years old = 60 calendar months

Example: A 42 year old gentleman provides you with a 1st class medical certificate. The certificate is 18 months old. 

Which class is the medical certificate?

Still a 1st class medical. The privileges may change but the class never changes.

Which privileges are still valid?

3rd class privileges are now valid.

Explanation

This gentleman’s 1st class medical was valid with 1st class privileges for 6 months. It then reverted to a 1st class medical with 2nd class privileges for the next 6 months, and is now a 1st class medical with 3rd class privileges for the final 12 months of its duration.

Medical Certificates

There are several conditions that would disqualify an individual from obtaining a medical certificate. Whenever you are unsure, contact your local AME.

However, if you provide documentation to the FAA you may be able to obtain a “Special Issuance Authorization.”

A SODA “Statement of Demonstrated Ability” may be available when working through an AME or the local FSDO (Flight Standards District Office). These SODAs will usually contain certain operating limitations.

FAA Sources Used for this Lesson

FAR Part 61


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