Updated: Dec 8, 2020
CFI Privileges and Limitations Lesson by wifiCFI
Flight Instructor Records (FAR 61.189)
A flight instructor must sign the logbook of each person to whom that instructor has given flight training or ground training.
A flight instructor must maintain a record in a logbook or a separate document that contains the following:
The name of each person whose logbook that instructor has endorsed for solo flight privileges, and the date of the endorsement; and
The name of each person that instructor has endorsed for a knowledge test or practical test, and the record shall also indicate the kind of test, the date, and the results.
Each flight instructor must retain the records required by this section for at least 3 years.
Flight Instructor Privileges (FAR 61.193)
A person who holds a flight instructor certificate is authorized within the limitations of that person's flight instructor certificate and ratings to train and issue endorsements that are required for:
A student pilot certificate;
A pilot certificate;
A flight instructor certificate;
A ground instructor certificate;
An aircraft rating;
An instrument rating;
A flight review, operating privilege, or recency of experience requirement of this part;
A practical test; and
A knowledge test.
Flight Instructor limitations (FAR 61.195)
A person who holds a flight instructor certificate is subject to the following limitations:
Hours of Training:
In any 24-consecutive-hour period, a flight instructor may not conduct more than 8 hours of flight training.
A flight instructor may not conduct flight training in any aircraft for which the flight instructor does not hold:
A pilot certificate and flight instructor certificate with the applicable category and class rating; and if appropriate, a type rating.
A flight instructor who provides instrument training for the issuance of an instrument rating, a type rating not limited to VFR, or the instrument training required for commercial pilot and airline transport pilot certificates must hold an instrument rating on his or her pilot certificate and flight instructor certificate that is appropriate to the category and class of aircraft used for the training provided.
Limitations on Endorsements
A flight instructor may not endorse a:
Student pilot's logbook for solo flight privileges, unless that flight instructor has:
Given that student the flight training required for solo flight privileges
Determined that the student is prepared to conduct the flight safely under known circumstances, subject to any limitations listed in the student's logbook that the instructor considers necessary for the safety of the flight.
Student pilot's logbook for a solo cross-country flight, unless that flight instructor has determined the student's flight preparation, planning, equipment, and proposed procedures are adequate for the proposed flight under the existing conditions and within any limitations listed in the logbook that the instructor considers necessary for the safety of the flight;
Student pilot's logbook for solo flight in a Class B airspace area or at an airport within Class B airspace unless that flight instructor has:
Given that student ground and flight training in that Class B airspace or at that airport; and
Determined that the student is proficient to operate the aircraft safely.
Logbook of a recreational pilot, unless that flight instructor has:
Given that pilot the ground and flight training required by this part; and
Determined that the recreational pilot is proficient to operate the aircraft safely.
Logbook of a pilot for a flight review, unless that instructor has conducted a review of that pilot in accordance with the requirements of §61.56(a)
Logbook of a pilot for an instrument proficiency check, unless that instructor has tested that pilot in accordance with the requirements of §61.57(d)
Training in an aircraft that requires a type rating.
A flight instructor may not give flight training in an aircraft that requires the pilot in command to hold a type rating unless the flight instructor holds a type rating for that aircraft on his or her pilot certificate.
Training received in a multiengine airplane.
A flight instructor may not give training required for the issuance of a certificate or rating in a multiengine airplane unless that flight instructor has at least 5 flight hours of pilot-in-command time in the specific make and model of the multiengine airplane.
To Teach Initial CFI Applicants
The ground training provided to an initial applicant for a flight instructor certificate must be given by an authorized instructor who:
Holds a ground or flight instructor certificate with the appropriate rating, has held that certificate for at least 24 calendar months, and has given at least 40 hours of ground training; or
Holds a ground or flight instructor certificate with the appropriate rating, and has given at least 100 hours of ground training in an FAA-approved course.
A flight instructor who provides training to an initial applicant for a flight instructor certificate must:
Hold the appropriate flight instructor certificate and rating;
Have held a flight instructor certificate for at least 24 months;
For training in preparation for an airplane, rotorcraft, or powered-lift rating, have given at least 200 hours of flight training as a flight instructor.
A flight instructor shall not make any self-endorsement for a certificate, rating, flight review, authorization, operating privilege, practical test, or knowledge test that is required by this part.
Flight Instructor Renewals (FAR 61.197)
A person who holds a flight instructor certificate that has not expired may renew that flight instructor certificate by:
Passing a practical test for:
One of the ratings listed on the current flight instructor certificate; or
An additional flight instructor rating
Submitting a completed and signed application with the FAA and satisfactorily completing one of the following renewal requirements:
A record of training students showing that, during the preceding 24 calendar months, the flight instructor has endorsed at least 5 students for a practical test for a certificate or rating and at least 80 percent of those students passed that test on the first attempt.
A record showing that, within the preceding 24 calendar months, the flight instructor has served as a company check pilot, chief flight instructor, company check airman, or flight instructor in a part 121 or part 135 operation, or in a position involving the regular evaluation of pilots.
A graduation certificate showing that, within the preceding 3 calendar months, the person has successfully completed an approved flight instructor refresher course consisting of ground training or flight training, or a combination of both.
Flight Instructor Reinstatement (FAR 61.199)
The holder of an expired flight instructor certificate who has not complied with the flight instructor renewal requirements of §61.197 may reinstate that flight instructor certificate and ratings by filing a completed and signed application with the FAA and satisfactorily completing one of the following reinstatement requirements:
A flight instructor certification practical test, as prescribed by §61.183(h), for one of the ratings held on the expired flight instructor certificate.
A flight instructor certification practical test for an additional rating.
FAA Sources Used in this Lesson
Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 61