ENGINE FAILURE APPROACH AND LANDING

Engine Failure Approach and Landing Lesson by wifiCFI


Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with an approach and landing with an engine inoperative, including engine failure on final approach.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of: 

Factors affecting VMC.

Vmc (red line) and Vyse (blue line).

How to identify and secure the inoperative engine. 

Importance of drag reduction, to include propeller feathering, gear and flap retraction, proper bank angle into operating engine and inclinometer ball coordination. 

Feathering and zero-thrust procedures. 

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing: 

Failure to plan for engine failure inflight or during an approach. 

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, terrain, obstacles, and wires. 

Improper aircraft configuration. 

Low altitude maneuvering/stall/spin. 

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management. 

Possible single-engine go-around. 

Engine Failure Approach and Landing (AFH C12)

The approach and landing with OEI is essentially the same as a two-engine approach and landing. 

The traffic pattern should be flown at similar altitudes, airspeeds, and key positions as a two-engine approach. 

The differences are the reduced power available and the fact that the remaining thrust is asymmetrical. 

A higher-than-normal power setting is necessary on the operative engine.

Downwind

With adequate airspeed and performance, the landing gear can still be extended on the downwind leg. 

In which case it should be confirmed DOWN no later than abeam the intended point of landing. 

Performance permitting, initial extension of wing flaps (typically 10°) and a descent from pattern altitude can also be initiated on the downwind leg. 

The airspeed should be no slower than VYSE.

Base

On the base leg, if performance is adequate, the flaps may be extended to an intermediate setting (typically 25°). 


If the performance is inadequate, as measured by decay in airspeed or high sink rate, delay further flap extension until closer to the runway. 

VYSE is still the minimum airspeed to maintain. 

Final

On final approach, a normal, 3° glidepath to a landing is desirable. 

Visual approach slope indicator (VASI) or other vertical path lighting aids should be utilized if available. 

Slightly steeper approaches may be acceptable. 

However, a long, flat, low approach should be avoided. 

Large, sudden power applications or reductions should also be avoided. 

Maintain VYSE until the landing is assured, then slow to 1.3 VSO or the AFM/POH recommended speed. 

The final flap setting may be delayed until the landing is assured or the airplane may be landed with partial flaps.

Go-Around

A single-engine go-around must be avoided. 

As a practical matter in single-engine approaches, once the airplane is on final approach with landing gear and flaps extended, it is committed to land on the intended runway, on another runway, a taxiway, or grassy infield. 

The light-twin does not have the performance to climb on one engine with landing gear and flaps extended.

Common Errors

Failure to promptly recognize engine failure

Failure to promptly accomplish memory items

Failure to maintain directional control of the airplane

Failure to maintain Vyse or Vxse as appropriate

Failure to correctly and promptly configure the aircraft

Failure to establish a Zero Sideslip condition

ACS Standards

Recognize an engine failure and take appropriate action, maintain control, and utilize the manufacturer’s recommended emergency procedures. 

Bank toward the operating engine as required for best performance. 

Monitor the operating engine and make adjustments as necessary. 

Maintain the manufacturer’s recommended approach airspeed +/-5, and landing configuration with a stabilized approach until landing is assured. 

Make smooth, timely, and correct control applications during round out and touchdown. 

Touch down on the first one-third of available runway, with no drift and the airplane’s longitudinal axis aligned with and over the runway center. 

Maintain crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing sequence. 

Complete the appropriate checklist.

FAA Sources Used for This Lesson

Airmen Certification Standards (ACS)

Airplane Flying Handbook (AFH) Chapter 12

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