GO AROUNDS

Go Arounds Lesson by wifiCFI


Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with a go-around/rejected landing with emphasis on factors that contribute to landing conditions that may require a go-around.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of: 

A stabilized approach, to include energy management concepts. 

Effects of atmospheric conditions, including wind and density altitude on a go-around or rejected landing. 

Wind correction techniques on takeoff/departure, and approach/landing. 

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing: 

Delayed recognition of the need for rejected landing/go-around. 

Delayed performance of go-around at low altitude. 

Improper application of power. 

Improper aircraft configuration. 

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, terrain, obstacles and wires. 

Low altitude maneuvering/stall/spin. 

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management. 

Go-Arounds and Rejected Landings (AFH C8)

Whenever landing conditions are not satisfactory, a go-around is warranted. There are many factors that can contribute to unsatisfactory landing conditions. 

Situations such as: 

Air traffic control (ATC) requirements

Unexpected appearance of hazards on the runway

Overtaking another airplane

Wind shear

Wake turbulence

Mechanical failure

An unstable approach are all examples of reasons to discontinue a landing approach and make another approach under more favorable conditions. 

The assumption that an aborted landing is invariably the consequence of a poor approach, which in turn is due to insufficient experience or skill, is a fallacy. 

The go-around is not strictly an emergency procedure. It is a normal maneuver that is also used in an emergency situation.

Power

Power is the pilot’s first concern. 

The instant a pilot decides to go around, full or maximum allowable takeoff power must be applied smoothly and without hesitation and held until flying speed and controllability are restored.

Attitude

Attitude is always critical when close to the ground, and when power is added, a deliberate effort on the part of the pilot is required to keep the nose from pitching up prematurely. 

The airplane executing a go-around must be maintained in an attitude that permits a buildup of airspeed well beyond the stall point before any effort is made to gain altitude or to execute a turn.

Configuration

After establishing the proper climb attitude and power settings, be concerned first with flaps and secondly with the landing gear (if retractable).

Unless otherwise specified in the AFM/POH, it is generally recommended that the flaps be retracted (at least partially) before retracting the landing gear for two reasons. 

First, on most airplanes full flaps produce more drag than the landing gear 

Second, in case the airplane inadvertently touches down as the go-around is initiated

Stabilized Approach Concept

A stabilized approach is one in which the pilot establishes and maintains a constant angle glide path towards a predetermined point on the landing runway. 

It is based on the pilot’s judgment of certain visual clues and depends on the maintenance of a constant final descent airspeed and configuration.

Remember the 5 C’s of a Go-Around

Cram

Full Power

Climb

At Vx or Vy as Appropriate

Clean

Retract Flaps and Landing Gear

Cool

Open Cowl Flaps

Call

Inform ATC of Go-Around Decision

Private Pilot ACS Standards

Complete the appropriate checklist. 

Make radio calls as appropriate. 

Make a timely decision to discontinue the approach to landing. 

Apply takeoff power immediately and transition to climb pitch attitude for VX or VY as appropriate +10/-5 knots. 

Retract the flaps, as appropriate. 

Retract the landing gear after establishing a positive rate of climb. 

Maneuver to the side of the runway/landing area when necessary to clear and avoid conflicting traffic. 

Maintain VY +10/-5 knots to a safe maneuvering altitude. 

Maintain directional control and proper wind-drift correction throughout the climb. 

Commercial Pilot ACS Standards

Complete the appropriate checklist. 

Make radio calls as appropriate. 

Make a timely decision to discontinue the approach to landing. 

Apply takeoff power immediately and transition to climb pitch attitude for VX or VY as appropriate +10/-5 knots. 

Retract the flaps, as appropriate. 

Retract the landing gear after establishing a positive rate of climb. 

Maneuver to the side of the runway/landing area when necessary to clear and avoid conflicting traffic. 

Maintain VY +/-5 knots to a safe maneuvering altitude. 

Maintain directional control and proper wind-drift correction throughout the climb. 

Common Errors

Failure to recognize a condition that warrants a rejected landing 

Indecision 

Delay in initiating a go-around 

Failure to apply maximum allowable power in a timely manner 

Abrupt power application 

Improper pitch attitude 

Failure to configure the airplane appropriately 

Attempting to climb out of ground effect prematurely 

Failure to adequately compensate for torque/P factor 

Loss of aircraft control

FAA Sources Used for This Lesson

Private Pilot Airmen Certification Standards

Commercial Pilot Airmen Certification Standards

Airplane Flying Handbook (AFH) Chapter 8

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