Updated: Apr 12, 2022
CHAPTER TITLE: Flight Instruments
Below is a list of the figures (diagrams, charts, and pictures) from the IFH Chapter 5. They are listed in the order they are found in the Instrument Flying Handbook.
A typical electrically heated pitot-static head.
A typical pitot-static system.
Sensitive altimeter components.
The loss of altitude experienced when flying into an area where the air is colder (more dense) than standard.
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) cold temperature error table.
Effects of nonstandard pressure on an altimeter of an aircraft flown into air of lower than standard pressure (air is less dense).
Increase in aircraft permitted between FL 180 and FL 410.
Rate of climb or descent in thousands of feet per minute.
Mechanism of an ASI.
A true ASI allows the pilot to correct IAS for nonstandard temperature and pressure.
A Machmeter shows the ratio of the speed of sound to the TAS the aircraft is flying.
A maximum allowable ASI has a movable pointer that indicates the never-exceed speed, which changes with altitude to avoid the onset of transonic shock waves.
Color codes for an ASI.
A magnetic compass. The vertical line is called the lubber line.
Isogonic lines are lines of equal variation.
Utilization of a compass rose aids compensation for deviation errors.
A compass correction card shows the deviation correction for any heading.
Northerly turning error.
The effects of acceleration error.
Vertical card magnetic compass.
The soft iron frame of the flux valve accepts the flux from the Earth’s magnetic field each time the current in the center coil reverses. This flux causes current to flow in the three pickup coils.
The current in each of the three pickup coils changes with the heading of the aircraft.
The pictorial navigation indicator is commonly referred to as an HSI.
Driven by signals from a flux valve, the compass card in this RMI indicates the heading of the aircraft opposite the upper center index mark. The green pointer is driven by the ADF. The yellow pointer is driven by the VOR receiver.
A venturi tube system that provides necessary vacuum to operate key instruments.
Single-engine instrument vacuum system using a steel-vane, wet-type vacuum pump.
Twin-engine instrument pressure system using a carbon-vane, dry-type air pump.
The dial of this attitude indicator has reference lines to show pitch and roll.
The heading indicator is not north seeking, but must be set periodically (about every 15 minutes) to agree with the magnetic compass.
Precession causes a force applied to a spinning wheel to be felt 90° from the point of application in the direction of rotation.
The rate gyro in both turn-and-slip indicator and turn coordinator.
A turn coordinator senses rotation about both roll and yaw axes.
The Kearfott Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS) on the left incorporates a Monolithic Ring Laser Gyro (MRLG) (center), which is housed in an Inertial Sensor Assembly (ISA) on the right.
Air data computer (Collins).
Horizontal situation indicator (HSI).
A typical cue that a pilot would follow.
Components of a typical FDS.
The S-TEC/Meggit Corporation Integrated Autopilot installed in the Cirrus.
An Autopilot by Century.
A diagram layout of an autopilot by S-Tec.
A Control Display Unit (CDU) used to control the flight management system (FMS).
Two primary flight displays (Avidyne on the left and Garmin on the right).
The benefits of realistic visualization imagery, as illustrated by Synthetic Vision manufactured by Chelton Flight Systems. The system provides the pilot a realistic, real-time, three dimensional depiction of the aircraft and its relation to terrain around it.
Example of a multi-function display (MFD).
Aircraft equipped with Automatic Dependent Surveillance—Broadcast (ADS-B) continuously broadcast their identification, altitude, direction, and vertical trend. The transmitted signal carries significant information for other aircraft and ground stations alike. Other ADS-equipped aircraft receive this information and process it in a variety of ways. It is possible that in a saturated environment (assuming all aircraft are ADS equipped), the systems can project tracks for their respective aircraft and retransmit to other aircraft their projected tracks, thereby enhancing collision avoidance. At one time, there was an Automatic Dependent Surveillance—Addressed (ADS-A) and that is explained in the Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge.
An aircraft equipped with ADS will receive identification, altitude in hundreds of feet (above or below using + or–), direction of the traffic, and aircraft descent or climb using an up or down arrow. The yellow target is an illustration of how a non-ADS equipped aircraft would appear on an ADS-equipped aircraft’s display
An aircraft equipped with ADS has the ability to upload and display weather.
Components of a radar altimeter.
Coverage provided by a traffic information system.
Multi-function display (MFD).
Concept of the traffic information system.
Theory of a typical alert system.
A Skywatch System.
Alert System by Avidyne (Ryan).
An example of a resolution advisory being provided to the pilot. In this case, the pilot is requested to climb, with 1,750 feet being the appropriate rate of ascent to avoid traffic conflict. This visual indication plus the audio warning provide the pilot with excellent traffic awareness that augments see-and-avoid practices.
A six-frame sequence illustrating the manner in which TAWS operates. A TAWS installation is aircraft specific and provides warnings and cautions based upon time to potential impact with terrain rather than distance. The TAWS is illustrated in an upper left window while aircrew view is provided out of the windscreen. illustrates the aircraft in relation to the outside terrain while and illustrate the manner in which the TAWS system displays the terrain. is providing a caution of terrain to be traversed, while provides an illustration of a warning with an aural and textural advisory (red) to pull up. also illustrates a pilot taking appropriate action (climb in this case) while illustrates that a hazard is no longer a factor.
A head-up display (HUD).