top of page

IFH Chapter 9

Updated: Apr 12, 2022

CHAPTER TITLE: Navigation Systems


Below is a list of the figures (diagrams, charts, and pictures) from the IFH Chapter 9. They are listed in the order they are found in the Instrument Flying Handbook.


AUDIO RECORDING


FIGURE 9-1

Ground, space, and sky wave propogation.


FIGURE 9-2

ADF indicator instrument and receiver


FIGURE 9-3

Relative bearing (RB) on a fixed-card indicator. Note Relative bearing (RB) on a fixed-card indicator. that the card always indicates 360° or north. In this case, the RB to the station is 135° to the right. If the aircraft were on a magnetic heading of 360°, then the magnetic bearing (MB) would also be 135°.


FIGURE 9-4

Relative bearing (RB) on a movable-card indicator. By placing the aircraft’s magnetic heading (MH) of 045° under the top index, the RB of 135° to the right is also the magnetic bearing (no wind conditions), which takes you to the transmitting station.


FIGURE 9-5

Radio magnetic indicator (RMI). Because the aircraft’s magnetic heading (MH) is automatically changed, the relative bearing (RB), in this case 095°, indicates the magnetic bearing (095°) to the station (no wind conditions) and the MH that takes you there.


FIGURE 9-6

ADF homing with a crosswind.


FIGURE 9-7

ADF tracking inbound.


FIGURE 9-8

ADF interception and tracking outbound.


FIGURE 9-9

Interception of bearing.


FIGURE 9-10

VOR radials.


FIGURE 9-11

VOR transmitter (ground station).


FIGURE 9-12

The VOR indicator instrument.


FIGURE 9-13

A typical horizontal situation indicator (HSI).


FIGURE 9-14

An HSI display as seen on the pilot’s primary flight display (PFD) on an electronic flight instrument. Note that only attributes related to the HSI are labeled.


FIGURE 9-15

CDI interpretation. The CDI as typically found on analog systems (right) and as found on electronic flight instruments (left).


FIGURE 9-16

Course interception (VOR).


FIGURE 9-17

DME arc interception.


FIGURE 9-18

Using DME and RMI to maintain an arc.


FIGURE 9-19

An aircraft is displayed heading southwest to intercept the localizer approach, using the 16 NM DME arc off of ORM.


FIGURE 9-20

The same aircraft illustrated in Figure 9-19 shown on the ORM radial near TIGAE intersection turning inbound for the localizer.


FIGURE 9-21

Aircraft is illustrated inbound on the localizer course.


FIGURE 9-22

RNAV computation.


FIGURE 9-23

Onboard RNAV receivers have changed significantly. Originally, RNAV receivers typically computed combined data from VOR, VORTAC, and/or DME. That is generally not the case now. Today, GPS such as the GNC 300 and the Bendix King KLS 88 LORAN receivers compute waypoints based upon embedded databases and aircraft positional information.


FIGURE 9-24

VOR/DME RNAV RWY 25 approach (excerpt).


FIGURE 9-25

Aircraft/DME/waypoint relationship.


FIGURE 9-26

A typical example (GNS 480) of a stand-alone GPS receiver and display.


FIGURE 9-27

Typical GPS satellite array.


FIGURE 9-28

A GPS stand-alone approach.


FIGURE 9-29

WAAS satellite representation.


FIGURE 9-30

WAAS provides performance enhancement for GPS approach procedures through real-time monitoring.


FIGURE 9-31

LAAS representation.


FIGURE 9-32

The LAAS system working with GPS satellites, reference receivers and radio transmitters which are located on or in the vicinity of the airport.


FIGURE 9-33

Instrument landing systems.


FIGURE 9-34

Localizer coverage limits.


FIGURE 9-35

Localizer receiver indications and aircraft displacement.


FIGURE 9-36

Precision and nonprecision ALS configuration.


FIGURE 9-37

Standard two-bar VASI.


FIGURE 9-38

Localizer course indications. To follow indications displayed in the aircraft, start from A and proceed through E.


FIGURE 9-39

A GS receiver indication and aircraft displacement. An analog system is on the left and the same indication on the Garmin PFD on the right.


FIGURE 9-40

MLS coverage volumes, 3-D representation.


FIGURE 9-41

Required navigation performance.


FIGURE 9-42

Typical display and control unit(s) in general aviation. The Universal UNS-1 (left) controls and integrates all other systems. The Avidyne (center) and Garmin systems (right) illustrate and are typical of completely integrated systems. Although the Universal CDU is not typically found on smaller general aviation aircraft, the difference in capabilities of the CDUs and stand-alone sytems is diminishing each year.


FIGURE 9-43

Example of a head-up display (top) and a head-down display (bottom). The head-up display presents information in front of the pilot along his/her normal field of view while a head-down display may present information beyond the normal head-up field of view.


Comments


bottom of page