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PHAK Chapter 14

Updated: Apr 12, 2022

CHAPTER TITLE: Airport Operations

Below is a list of the figures (diagrams, charts, and pictures) from the PHAK Chapter 14. They are listed in the order they are found in the Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge.



Recommended communication procedures.


Preferred Entry-Crossing Midfield.


Alternate Midfield Entry.


Chart Supplement U.S. (formerly Airport/Facility Directory excerpt.


(A) Relocated runway threshold drawing. (B) Relocated threshold for Runway 36 at Joplin Regional Airport (JLN).


(A) Displaced runway threshold drawing. (B) Displaced threshold for Runway 17 at Albuquerque International Airport (ABQ).


Runway Safety Area.


Runway safety area boundary sign and marking located on Taxiway Kilo.


Runway holding position sign at takeoff end of Runway 14 with collocated Taxiway Alpha location sign.

FIGURE 14-10

Runway holding position sign at a location other than the takeoff end of Runway 18-36 with collocated Taxiway Alpha location sign.

FIGURE 14-11

(A) Taxiway Bravo location sign collocated with runway/runway intersection holding signs at Sioux Gateway Airport (SUX) (B) Airport diagram of Sioux Gateway Airport (SUX), Sioux City, Iowa. The area outlined in red is a designated “hot spot” (HS1).

FIGURE 14-12

Surface painted runway holding position signs for Runway 32R-14L along with the enhanced taxiway centerline marking.

FIGURE 14-13

Surface painted holding position marking along with enhanced taxiway centerline.

FIGURE 14-14

Runway holding position markings as seen when exiting the runway. When exiting the runway, no ATC clearance is required to cross.

FIGURE 14-15

Runway distance remaining sign indicating that there is 2,000 feet of runway remaining.

FIGURE 14-16

Two of three parallel runways.

FIGURE 14-17

Runway holding position sign and marking for LAHSO.

FIGURE 14-18

Taxiway Bravo direction sign with a collocated Taxiway Delta location sign. When the arrow on the direction sign indicates a turn, the sign is located prior to the intersection.

FIGURE 14-19

Surface painted taxiway direction signs.

FIGURE 14-20

Orientation of signs is from left to right in a clockwise manner. Left turn signs are on the left and right turn on the right. In this view, the pilot is on Taxiway Bravo.

FIGURE 14-21

(A) Enhanced taxiway centerline marking. (B) Enhanced taxiway centerline marking and runway holding position marking.

FIGURE 14-22

Destination sign to the fixed-base operator (FBO).

FIGURE 14-23

Runway destination sign with different taxi routes.

FIGURE 14-24

Instrument landing system (ILS) holding position sign and marking on Taxiway Golf.

FIGURE 14-25

Holding position sign and marking for instrument landing system (ILS) critical area boundary.

FIGURE 14-26

Holding position marking on a taxiway.

FIGURE 14-27

(A) Yellow “X” placed on surface of temporarily closed runways. (B) Lighted “X” placed on temporarily closed runways. (C) Lighted “X” at night showing a temporarily closed runway.

FIGURE 14-28

Airport rotating beacons.

FIGURE 14-29

Two-bar VASI system.

FIGURE 14-30

Precision approach path indicator for a typical 3° glide slope.

FIGURE 14-31

Tri-color visual approach slope indicator.

FIGURE 14-32

Pulsating visual approach slope indicator.

FIGURE 14-33

Runway lights.

FIGURE 14-34

Radio controlled runway lighting.

FIGURE 14-35

Runway Entrance Lights (REL).

FIGURE 14-36

Takeoff Hold Lights (THL).

FIGURE 14-37

Wind direction indicators.

FIGURE 14-38

Segmented circle.

FIGURE 14-39

Traffic pattern operations—single runway.

FIGURE 14-40

Traffic pattern operation—parallel runways.

FIGURE 14-41

Phonetic alphabet.

FIGURE 14-42

Light gun signals.

FIGURE 14-43

Transponder phraseology.

FIGURE 14-44

Traffic advisories.

FIGURE 14-45

Vortex generation.

FIGURE 14-46

Vortex behavior.

FIGURE 14-47

Vortex avoidance procedures.

FIGURE 14-48

Heads-up, eyes outside.

FIGURE 14-49

Confusing runway/runway intersection.

FIGURE 14-50

A sound practice is to write down taxi instructions from ATC.

FIGURE 14-51

Do NOT cross a runway holding position marking without ATC clearance. If the tower is closed or you are operating from a non-towered airport, check both directions for conflicting traffic before crossing the hold position marking.

FIGURE 14-52

Runway 13-31 holding position sign and marking located on Taxiway Charlie.

FIGURE 14-53

Example of taxi and “hold short” instructions from ATC to a pilot.

FIGURE 14-54

Communication between ATC and a pilot who is requesting taxi procedures.

FIGURE 14-55

Engineered material arresting system (EMAS) located at Yeager Airport, Charleston, West Virginia.

FIGURE 14-56

Diagram of an EMASMAX system.

FIGURE 14-57

There have been several incidents where the EMAS has successfully arrested the aircraft.

FIGURE 14-58

A Bombardier CRJ-200 regional jet overran the runway at Yeager Airport (KCRW) in Charleston, West Virginia.

FIGURE 14-59

EMAS information for Boston Logan International Airport located in the Chart Supplement U.S. (formerly Airport/ Facility Directory).

FIGURE 14-60

An airport diagram with EMAS information.

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