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PHAK Chapter 16

Updated: Apr 12, 2022

CHAPTER TITLE: Navigation


Below is a list of the figures (diagrams, charts, and pictures) from the PHAK Chapter 16. They are listed in the order they are found in the Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge.


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FIGURE 16-1

Sectional chart and legend.


FIGURE 16-2

VFR Terminal Area Chart and legend.


FIGURE 16-3

World aeronautical chart.


FIGURE 16-4

Meridians and parallels—the basis of measuring time, distance, and direction.


FIGURE 16-5

Time zones in the conterminous United States.


FIGURE 16-6

Compass rose.


FIGURE 16-7

Courses are determined by reference to meridians on aeronautical charts.


FIGURE 16-8

Magnetic meridians are in red while the lines of longitude and latitude are in blue. From these lines of variation (magnetic meridians), one can determine the effect of local magnetic variations on a magnetic compass.


FIGURE 16-9

Note the agonic line where magnetic variation is zero.


FIGURE 16-10

Effect of variation on the compass.


FIGURE 16-11

Magnetized portions of the airplane cause the compass to deviate from its normal indications.


FIGURE 16-12

Compass deviation card.


FIGURE 16-13

Motion of the air affects the speed with which aircraft move over the Earth’s surface. Airspeed, the rate at which an aircraft moves through the air, is not affected by air motion.


FIGURE 16-14

Aircraft flight path resulting from its airspeed and direction and the wind speed and direction.


FIGURE 16-15

Effects of wind drift on maintaining desired course.


FIGURE 16-16

Relationship between true, magnetic, and compass headings for a particular instance.


FIGURE 16-17

Establishing a wind correction angle that counteracts wind drift and maintains the desired course.


FIGURE 16-18

A plotter (A), the computational and wind side of a mechanical flight computer (E6B) (B), and an electronic flight computer (C).


FIGURE 16-19

Principle of the wind triangle.


FIGURE 16-20

The wind triangle as is drawn in navigation practice.


FIGURE 16-21

Steps in drawing the wind triangle.


FIGURE 16-22

Finding true heading by the wind correction angle.


FIGURE 16-23

Finding true heading by direct measurement.


FIGURE 16-24

Chart Supplement U.S. (formerly Airport/Facility Directory).


FIGURE 16-25

Sectional chart excerpt.


FIGURE 16-26

Pilot’s planning sheet and visual flight log.


FIGURE 16-27

Domestic flight plan form.


FIGURE 16-28

VHF transmissions follow a line-of-sight course.


FIGURE 16-29

VOR indicator.


FIGURE 16-30

Horizontal situation indicator.


FIGURE 16-31

Radio magnetic indicator.


FIGURE 16-32

Tracking a radial in a crosswind.


FIGURE 16-33

Time-distance check example.


FIGURE 16-34

Time-distance check formula using a CDI.


FIGURE 16-35

Flying an RNAV course.


FIGURE 16-36

RNAV controls.


FIGURE 16-37

ADF with fixed azimuth and magnetic compass.


FIGURE 16-38

ADF terms.


FIGURE 16-39

ADF tracking.


FIGURE 16-40

Satellite constellation.


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