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PHAK Chapter 5

Updated: Apr 12, 2022

CHAPTER TITLE: Aerodynamics of Flight


Below is a list of the figures (diagrams, charts, and pictures) from the PHAK Chapter 5. They are listed in the order they are found in the Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge.


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FIGURE 5-1

Relationship of forces acting on an aircraft.


FIGURE 5-2

Force vectors during a stabilized climb.


FIGURE 5-3

Angle of attack at various speeds.


FIGURE 5-4

Some aircraft have the ability to change the direction of thrust.


FIGURE 5-5

Coefficients of lift and drag at various angles of attack.


FIGURE 5-6

Drag versus speed.


FIGURE 5-7

Form drag.


FIGURE 5-8

A wing root can cause interference drag.


FIGURE 5-9

Wingtip vortex from a crop duster.


FIGURE 5-10

The difference in wingtip vortex size at altitude versus near the ground.


FIGURE 5-11

The difference in downwash at altitude versus near the ground.


FIGURE 5-12

Wingtip vortices.


FIGURE 5-13

Avoid following another aircraft at an altitude within 1,000 feet.


FIGURE 5-14

Avoid turbulence from another aircraft.


FIGURE 5-15

When the vortices of larger aircraft sink close to the ground (within 100 to 200 feet), they tend to move laterally over the ground at a speed of 2 or 3 knots (top). A crosswind will decrease the lateral movement of the upwind vortex and increase the movement of the downwind vortex. Thus a light wind with a cross runway component of 1 to 5 knots could result in the upwind vortex remaining in the touchdown zone for a period of time and hasten the drift of the downwind vortex toward another runway (bottom).


FIGURE 5-16

Ground effect changes airflow.


FIGURE 5-17

Ground effect changes drag and lift.


FIGURE 5-18

Axes of an airplane.


FIGURE 5-19

A weight-shift control aircraft.


FIGURE 5-20

A powered parachute.


FIGURE 5-21

Types of static stability.


FIGURE 5-22

Damped versus undamped stability.


FIGURE 5-23

Longitudinal stability.


FIGURE 5-24

Effect of speed on downwash.


FIGURE 5-25

Reduced power allows pitch down.


FIGURE 5-26

Thrust line affects longitudinal stability.


FIGURE 5-27

Power changes affect longitudinal stability.


FIGURE 5-28

Dihedral is the upward angle of the wings from a horizontal (front/rear view) axis of the plane as shown in the graphic depiction and the rear view of a Ryanair Boeing 737.


FIGURE 5-29

Sideslip causing different AOA on each blade.


FIGURE 5-30

Sweepback wings.


FIGURE 5-31

Keel area for lateral stability.


FIGURE 5-32

Fuselage and fin for directional stability.


FIGURE 5-33

Different types of wing planforms.


FIGURE 5-34

Forces during normal, coordinated turn at constant altitude.


FIGURE 5-35

Normal, slipping, and skidding turns at a constant altitude.


FIGURE 5-36

Changes in lift during climb entry.


FIGURE 5-37

Changes in speed during climb entry.


FIGURE 5-38

Forces exerted when pulling out of a dive.


FIGURE 5-39

Increase in stall speed and load factor.


FIGURE 5-40

Inflight ice formation.


FIGURE 5-41

A variety of AOA indicators.


FIGURE 5-42

An AOA indicator has several benefits when installed in general aviation aircraft.


FIGURE 5-43

Airfoil sections of propeller blade.


FIGURE 5-44

Propeller blade angle.


FIGURE 5-45

Propeller slippage.


FIGURE 5-46

Propeller tips travel faster than the hub.


FIGURE 5-47

Torque reaction.


FIGURE 5-48

Corkscrewing slipstream.


FIGURE 5-49

Gyroscopic precession.


FIGURE 5-50

Raising tail produces gyroscopic precession.


FIGURE 5-51

Asymmetrical loading of propeller (P-factor).


FIGURE 5-52

Two forces cause load factor during turns.


FIGURE 5-53

Angle of bank changes load factor in level flight.


FIGURE 5-54

Load factor changes stall speed.


FIGURE 5-55

Typical Vg diagram.


FIGURE 5-56

Rate of turn for a given airspeed (knots, TAS) and bank angle.


FIGURE 5-57

Rate of turn when increasing speed.


FIGURE 5-58

To achieve the same rate of turn of an aircraft traveling at 120 knots, an increase of bank angle is required.


FIGURE 5-59

Radius at 120 knots with bank angle of 30°.


FIGURE 5-60

Radius at 240 knots.


FIGURE 5-61

Another formula that can be used for radius.


FIGURE 5-62

Two aircraft have flown into a canyon by error. The canyon is 5,000 feet across and has sheer cliffs on both sides. The pilot in the top image is flying at 120 knots. After realizing the error, the pilot banks hard and uses a 30° bank angle to reverse course. This aircraft requires about 4,000 feet to turn 180°, and makes it out of the canyon safely. The pilot in the bottom image is flying at 140 knots and also uses a 30° angle of bank in an attempt to reverse course. The aircraft, although flying just 20 knots faster than the aircraft in the top image, requires over 6,000 feet to reverse course to safety. Unfortunately, the canyon is only 5,000 feet across and the aircraft will hit the canyon wall. The point is that airspeed is the most influential factor in determining how much distance is required to turn. Many pilots have made the error of increasing the steepness of their bank angle when a simple reduction of speed would have been more appropriate.


FIGURE 5-63

Effect of load distribution on balance.


FIGURE 5-64

Wing airflow.


FIGURE 5-65

Critical Mach.


FIGURE 5-66

Boundary layer.


FIGURE 5-67

Shock waves.


FIGURE 5-68

Sweepback effect.


FIGURE 5-69

Wingtip pre-stall.


FIGURE 5-70

T-tail stall.


FIGURE 5-71

Control surfaces.


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