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PHAK Chapter 8

Updated: Apr 12, 2022

CHAPTER TITLE: Flight Instruments


Below is a list of the figures (diagrams, charts, and pictures) from the PHAK Chapter 8. They are listed in the order they are found in the Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge.


AUDIO RECORDING


FIGURE 8-1

Pitot-static system and instruments.


FIGURE 8-2

Altimeter.


FIGURE 8-3

Effects of nonstandard temperature on an altimeter.


FIGURE 8-4

Look at the chart using a temperature of –10 °C and an aircraft altitude of 1,000 feet above the airport elevation. The chart shows that the reported current altimeter setting may place the aircraft as much as 100 feet below the altitude indicated by the altimeter.


FIGURE 8-5

Vertical speed indicator (VSI).


FIGURE 8-6

An IVSI incorporates accelerometers to help the instrument immediately indicate changes in vertical speed.


FIGURE 8-7

Airspeed indicator (ASI).


FIGURE 8-8

Single engine airspeed indicator (ASI).


FIGURE 8-9

A blocked pitot tube, but clear drain hole.


FIGURE 8-10

Blocked pitot system with clear static system.


FIGURE 8-11

Blocked static system.


FIGURE 8-12

Primary flight display (PFD). Note that the actual location of indications vary depending on manufacturers.


FIGURE 8-13

Multi-function display (MFD).


FIGURE 8-14

Chelton’s FlightLogic (top) and Avidyne’s Entegra (bottom) are examples of panel displays that are configurable.


FIGURE 8-15

Teledyne’s 90004 TAS/Plus Air Data Computer (ADC) computes air data information from the pitot-static pneumatic system, aircraft temperature probe, and barometric correction device to help create a clear picture of flight characteristics.


FIGURE 8-16

Airspeed trend vector.


FIGURE 8-17

Altimeter trend vector.


FIGURE 8-18

Regardless of the position of its base, a gyro tends to remain rigid in space, with its axis of rotation pointed in a constant direction.


FIGURE 8-19

Precession of a gyroscope resulting from an applied deflective force.


FIGURE 8-20

Typical vacuum system.


FIGURE 8-21

Turn indicators rely on controlled precession for their operation.


FIGURE 8-22

If inadequate right rudder is applied in a right turn, a slip results. Too much right rudder causes the aircraft to skid through the turn. Centering the ball results in a coordinated turn.


FIGURE 8-23

Attitude indicator.


FIGURE 8-24

Attitude representation by the attitude indicator corresponds to the relation of the aircraft to the real horizon.


FIGURE 8-25

A heading indicator displays headings based on a 360° azimuth, with the final zero omitted. For example, “6” represents 060°, while “21” indicates 210°. The adjustment knob is used to align the heading indicator with the magnetic compass.


FIGURE 8-26

Attitude and heading reference system (AHRS).


FIGURE 8-27

The soft iron frame of the flux valve accepts the flux from the Earth’s magnetic field each time the current in the center coil reverses. This flux causes current to flow in the three pickup coils.


FIGURE 8-28

The current in each of the three pickup coils changes with the heading of the aircraft.


FIGURE 8-29

Pictorial navigation indicator (HSI, top), slaving meter (lower right), and slaving control compensator unit (lower left).


FIGURE 8-30

Driven by signals from a flux valve, the compass card in this RMI indicates the heading of the aircraft opposite the upper center index mark. The green pointer is driven by the ADF.


FIGURE 8-31

Angle of attack indicators.


FIGURE 8-32

A magnetic compass. The vertical line is called the lubber line.


FIGURE 8-33

Isogonic lines are lines of equal variation.


FIGURE 8-34

Utilization of a compass rose aids compensation for deviation errors.


FIGURE 8-35

A compass correction card shows the deviation correction for any heading.


FIGURE 8-36

Northerly and southerly turning errors.


FIGURE 8-37

The effects of acceleration error.


FIGURE 8-38

Vertical card magnetic compass.


FIGURE 8-39

Outside air temperature (OAT) gauge.


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