Updated: Dec 8, 2020
Secondary Stalls Lesson by wifiCFI
Exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements of secondary stalls, in selected landing gear and flap configurations by describing:
Aerodynamics of secondary stalls.
Flight situations where secondary stalls may occur.
Hazards of secondary stalls during normal stall or spin recovery.
Entry procedure and minimum entry altitude.
Recognition of a secondary stall.
Recovery procedure and minimum recovery altitude.
Exhibits instructional knowledge of common errors related to secondary stalls, in selected landing gear and flap configurations by describing:
Failure to establish selected configuration prior to entry.
Improper or inadequate demonstration of the recognition of and recovery from a secondary stall.
Failure to present simulated student instruction that adequately emphasizes the hazards of poor procedure in recovering from a primary stall.
Demonstrates and simultaneously explains secondary stalls, in selected landing gear and flap configurations, from an instructional standpoint.
Analyzes and corrects simulated common errors related to secondary stalls in selected landing gear and flap configurations.
Secondary Stalls (AFH C4)
A secondary stall is so named because it occurs after recovery from a preceding stall.
It is typically caused by abrupt control inputs or attempting to return to the desired flightpath too quickly and the critical AOA is exceeded a second time.
It can also occur when the pilot does not sufficiently reduce the AOA by lowering the pitch attitude or attempts to break the stall by using power only.
For pilot certification, this is a demonstration-only maneuver.
Flying the Maneuver
When a secondary stall occurs, the pilot should again perform the stall recovery procedures by applying nose-down elevator pressure as required to eliminate the stall warning, level the wings with ailerons, coordinate with rudder, and adjust power as needed.
When the airplane is no longer in a stalled condition the pilot can return the airplane to the desired flightpath.
Failure to adequately clear the area
Over-reliance on the airspeed indicator and slip-skid indicator while excluding other cues
Inability to recognize an impending stall condition
Failure to take timely action to prevent a full stall during the conduct of impending stalls
Failure to maintain a constant bank angle during turning stalls
Failure to maintain proper coordination with the rudder throughout the stall and recovery
Recovering before reaching the critical AOA when practicing the full stall maneuver
Not disconnecting the wing leveler or autopilot, if equipped, prior to reducing AOA
Recovery is attempted without recognizing the importance of pitch control and AOA
Not maintaining a nose down control input until the stall warning is eliminated
Pilot attempts to level the wings before reducing AOA
Pilot attempts to recover with power before reducing AOA
Failure to roll wings level after AOA reduction and stall warning is eliminated
Inadvertent secondary stall during recovery
Excessive forward-elevator pressure during recovery resulting in low or negative G load
Excessive airspeed buildup during recovery
Losing situational awareness and failing to return to desired flightpath or follow ATC instructions after recovery.
FAA Sources Used for This Lesson
Certified Flight Instructor Practical Test Standards (PTS)
Airplane Flying Handbook (AFH) Chapter 4