Updated: Dec 8, 2020

Secondary Stalls Lesson by wifiCFI


Exhibits instructional knowledge of the elements of secondary stalls, in selected landing gear and flap configurations by describing: 

Aerodynamics of secondary stalls. 

Flight situations where secondary stalls may occur. 

Hazards of secondary stalls during normal stall or spin recovery. 

Entry procedure and minimum entry altitude. 

Recognition of a secondary stall. 

Recovery procedure and minimum recovery altitude. 

Exhibits instructional knowledge of common errors related to secondary stalls, in selected landing gear and flap configurations by describing:

Failure to establish selected configuration prior to entry. 

Improper or inadequate demonstration of the recognition of and recovery from a secondary stall. 

Failure to present simulated student instruction that adequately emphasizes the hazards of poor procedure in recovering from a primary stall. 

Demonstrates and simultaneously explains secondary stalls, in selected landing gear and flap configurations, from an instructional standpoint. 

Analyzes and corrects simulated common errors related to secondary stalls in selected landing gear and flap configurations.

Secondary Stalls (AFH C4)

A secondary stall is so named because it occurs after recovery from a preceding stall. 

It is typically caused by abrupt control inputs or attempting to return to the desired flightpath too quickly and the critical AOA is exceeded a second time. 

It can also occur when the pilot does not sufficiently reduce the AOA by lowering the pitch attitude or attempts to break the stall by using power only. 

For pilot certification, this is a demonstration-only maneuver.

Flying the Maneuver

When a secondary stall occurs, the pilot should again perform the stall recovery procedures by applying nose-down elevator pressure as required to eliminate the stall warning, level the wings with ailerons, coordinate with rudder, and adjust power as needed. 

When the airplane is no longer in a stalled condition the pilot can return the airplane to the desired flightpath. 

Common Errors

Failure to adequately clear the area 

Over-reliance on the airspeed indicator and slip-skid indicator while excluding other cues 

Inability to recognize an impending stall condition 

Failure to take timely action to prevent a full stall during the conduct of impending stalls 

Failure to maintain a constant bank angle during turning stalls 

Failure to maintain proper coordination with the rudder throughout the stall and recovery 

Recovering before reaching the critical AOA when practicing the full stall maneuver 

Not disconnecting the wing leveler or autopilot, if equipped, prior to reducing AOA 

Recovery is attempted without recognizing the importance of pitch control and AOA 

Not maintaining a nose down control input until the stall warning is eliminated 

Pilot attempts to level the wings before reducing AOA 

Pilot attempts to recover with power before reducing AOA 

Failure to roll wings level after AOA reduction and stall warning is eliminated 

Inadvertent secondary stall during recovery 

Excessive forward-elevator pressure during recovery resulting in low or negative G load 

Excessive airspeed buildup during recovery 

Losing situational awareness and failing to return to desired flightpath or follow ATC instructions after recovery.

FAA Sources Used for This Lesson

Certified Flight Instructor Practical Test Standards (PTS)

Airplane Flying Handbook (AFH) Chapter 4

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