VMC DEMO

Vmc Demo Lesson by wifiCFI


Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with a Vmc Demonstration.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of: 

Factors affecting VMC and how VMC differs from stall speed (VS). 

VMC (red line), VYSE (blue line), and VSSE (safe single-engine speed). 

Cause of loss of directional control at airspeeds below VMC. 

Proper procedures for maneuver entry and safe recovery.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing: 

Improper aircraft configuration. 

Maneuvering with one engine inoperative. 

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

Flying the Maneuver – Set Up

Clear the area.

For a Vmc demonstration, an altitude should be selected that will allow completion of the maneuver at least 3,000 AGL.

With the landing gear retracted and the flaps set to the normal takeoff position, the airplane should be slowed to approximately 10 knots above Vsse or Vyse (whichever is higher) and trimmed for takeoff.

An entry heading should be selected and high RPM set on both propeller controls.

Follow correct configuration settings.

Flying the Maneuver – Performance

Power on the left engine should be throttled back to idle and power on the right engine advanced to the takeoff setting. 

The pilot must be alert for the stall warning horn, if the aircraft is so equipped, or watch for the stall warning light. 

The left yawing and rolling moment of the asymmetrical thrust is counteracted primarily with right rudder. 

A bank angle of 5 degrees should also be established to assist with directional control.

While maintaining entry heading, the pitch attitude is slowly increased to decelerate at a rate of 1 knot per second (no faster). 

As the airplane slows and control effectiveness decays, the increasing yawing tendency should be counteracted with additional rudder pressure. 

Aileron displacement will also increase to maintain 5 degrees of bank. 

An airspeed is soon reached in which full right rudder travel and a 5-degree bank can no longer counteract the asymmetrical thrust, and the airplane will begin to yaw uncontrollably to the left.

Flying the Maneuver – Recovery

The moment the pilot first recognizes the uncontrollable yaw or experiences any symptom associated with a stall, recovery should be initiated by simultaneously reducing power sufficiently on the operating engine while decreasing the pitch attitude as necessary to stop the yaw. 

Recovery is made with a minimum loss of altitude to straight flight on the entry heading at Vsse or Vyse, as symmetrical power is set. 

The recovery should not be accomplished by increasing power on the windmilling engine.

Flying the Maneuver – Notes

With normally aspirated engines, Vmc decreases with altitude as reduced power available results in less asymmetrical thrust. 

Stalling speed (Vs), however, remains the same. 

Except for a few models, published Vmc is almost always higher than Vs. 

At sea level, there is usually a margin of several knots between Vmc and Vs, but the margin decreases with altitude and, at some altitude, Vmc and Vs are the same.

Where Vs is encountered at or before Vmc, the departure from controlled flight may be quite sudden, with strong yawing and rolling (spinning) tendencies toward the idle engine. 

Therefore, during a Vmc demonstration, if there is any indication of an impending stall, such as a stall warning light or horn, airframe or elevator buffet, or rapid decay of control effectiveness, the maneuver should be terminated immediately

Common Errors

Failure to adequately clear the area 

Improper starting altitude

Improper aircraft configuration

Losing more than 1 knot/sec in the climb

Slow or improper recovery technique

Not recovering at first indication of stall or loss of directional control

Attempting recovery by increasing power on the operating engine

Improper rudder force to maintain constant heading

Not returning to Vyse during recovery

ACS Standards

Configure the airplane in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendation, in the absence of the manufacturer’s recommendations, then at VSSE/VYSE, as appropriate:

Landing gear retracted 

Flaps set for takeoff 

Cowl flaps set for takeoff 

Trim set for takeoff 

Propellers set for high RPM 

Power on critical engine reduced to idle 

Power on operating engine set to takeoff or maximum available power 

Establish a single-engine climb attitude with the airspeed at approximately 10 knots above VSSE. 

Establish a bank angle not to exceed 5° toward the operating engine, as required for best performance and controllability. 

Increase the pitch attitude slowly to reduce the airspeed at approximately 1 knot per second while applying rudder pressure to maintain directional control until full rudder is applied. 

Recognize indications of loss of directional control, stall warning, or buffet. 

Recover promptly by simultaneously reducing power sufficiently on the operating engine while decreasing the angle of attack as necessary to regain airspeed and directional control. Recovery should not be attempted by increasing the power on the simulated failed engine. 

Recover within 20° of entry heading. 

Advance power smoothly on operating engine and accelerate to VSSE/VYSE, as appropriate, +/-5 knots, during recovery. 

FAA Sources Used for This Lesson

Airmen Certification Standards (ACS)

Flying Light Twins Safely

where aviation comes to study

worldwide site members: 19,212