Lesson Quicktakes cover the items that should be memorized from each of the wifiCFI Lessons. They do not cover all of the lesson details in-depth.
78% Nitrogen and 21% Oxygen.
Where we live and fly (most of the time).
4-12 miles high over poles.
48,000 feet high over equator.
Temperature decreases 2C per 1,000’ of altitude gain.
Thin layer above the troposphere.
Temperature remains fairly constant regardless of altitude.
GLOBAL CIRCULATION PATTERN:
Air at poles cools and sinks and then flows towards equator.
Air at equator heats and rises and then returns to poles.
The spinning of the Earth deflects the airflow in the Circulation Pattern.
Northern Hemisphere = Air is deflected to the RIGHT.
Southern Hemisphere = Air is deflected to the LEFT.
Within 2,000’ of the ground = Friction slows speed of air movement and alters its direction.
Standard Pressure at Sea Level = 29.92.
Decreases 1 inch per 1,000’ of altitude gain.
Standard Temperature at Sea Level = 15c.
Decreases 2c per 1,000’ of altitude gain.
WIND AND CURRENTS:
Horizontally Moving Air = Wind.
Vertically Moving Air = Convection.
High Pressure Systems = Air flows clockwise, downward, and outward.
Low Pressure Systems = Air flows counterclockwise, inward, and upward.
A sudden and drastic change in wind direction or velocity over a short distance.
Low-Level Windshear = Windshear that occurs near the surface (very dangerous).
The most severe type of Windshear.
Lifespan = 5-15 minutes.
Downdrafts = Up to 6,000 FPM.
Headwind Losses = 30-90 knots.
Stable Atmosphere = Resists vertical movement of air.
Poor visibility, little to no turbulence, showery precipitation.
Unstable Atmosphere = More vertical movement of air.
Better visibility, more turbulence, potential for hazardous storm weather.
Occur when air temperature increases with an increase in altitude (up to a certain point, which is, the top of the inversion layer).
Fog is just a cloud on the surface.
Radiation Fog = Clear nights with little to no wind present.
Advection Fog = Warm moist air moves over a cold surface. Winds up to 15 knots.
Upslope Fog = Moist air forced up sloping terrain. This moist air cools as it rises.
Steam Fog = Cold dry air moves over warmer water.
Ice Fog = Water vapor forms directly into ice crystals. Usually -25F or colder.
Fronts are boundaries between 2 different air masses.
Warm Front = Warm air moves in and replaces cooler air.
Cold Front = Cold air moves in and replaces warmer air.
Stationary Front = Two fronts pushing against each other and not moving.
Occluded Front = Two fronts conjoining and moving together.
STAGES OF A THUNDERSTORM:
Cumulus Stage = Mostly updrafts. Storm is building.
Mature Stage = Updrafts and downdrafts. Precipitation begins to fall.
Dissipating Stage = Mostly downdrafts. Storm is dying out.
TYPES OF ICING:
Clear Ice = Clear in color. Mostly develops from large water droplets. Freezes as it runs back along the wing (like an icicle).
Rime Ice = Milky in color. Mostly develops from smaller water droplets. Freezes on impact with the wing.
Mixed Ice = Mixture of clear and rime ice.