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Search Instrument Rating lesson Topics

Updated: Nov 15, 2021

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Phonetic Alphabet Lesson

Phonetic Alphabet, Numbers.


Defining Elements of Risk Management

Hazard Recognition, Tools for Hazard Awareness, Types of Risk, Risk Assessment Matrix.


Human Behavior

Introduction to Human Behavior, 5 Traits of Accident Prone Pilots, Antidotes for Hazardous Attitudes.


Identifying Hazards and Mitigating Risk

The PAVE Checklist, The IMSAFE Checklist.


Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM)

ADM Introduction, Analytical Decision Making, The DECIDE Model, Automatic Decision Making, Operational Pitfalls, The 3P Model.


Single Pilot Resource Management

SRM Introduction, Available Resources, The 5Ps.


Instrument Recency and Currency

Logging Instrument Time, IFR Recency Requirements, Instrument Proficiency Check (IPC).


Instrument Preflight Procedures

Required Preflight Actions (WKFARTN), Filing an IFR Flight Plan, Obtaining the IFR Clearance (CRAFT).


IFR Airworthiness Requirements

Required Aircraft Documents (ARROW), Required Aircraft Inspections (AV1ATES), Transponder Operations, Airworthiness Directives (AD), Form 337, Required VFR Day Equipment (ATOMATOFLAMES), Required VFR Night Equipment (FLAPS), Required IFR Equipment (GRABCARDD), Inoperative Equipment, Minimum Equipment Lists (MEL), Inoperative Flow Chart, Special Flight Permit.


Runway Incursion Avoidance

Challenges to Taxiing, Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO), Sterile Cockpit Principle, Cockpit Activities, Hot Spots, Airport Signs, Airport Markings, Procedures for Taxiing, Hold Short Lines, Controlled Airport Procedures, Non-Controlled Airport Procedures, Aircraft Lighting and Night Operations.


Aeromedical Factors

Medical Certificates, Hypoxia, Hyperventilation, Middle Ear and Sinus Congestion, Spatial Disorientation, Vestibular Illusions, Visual Illusions, Motion Sickness, Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning, Stress, Fatigue, Alcohol and Drugs, DCS and Scuba Diving, IMSAFE Checklist.


Airplane Weight and Balance

Terminology, Effects of being Overweight, Balance Control, Center of Gravity (CG), Weight Shift Formula, Weight and Balance Graph and Example.


National Airspace System

Class A Airspace, Class B Airspace, Class C Airspace, Class D Airspace, Class E Airspace, Class G Airspace, Special VFR, Aircraft Speed Limits, Prohibited Areas, Restricted Areas, Warning Areas, Military Operating Areas (MOA), Alert Areas, Local Airport Advisory (LAA), Military Training Routes (MTR), Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFR), Parachute Jump Operations, Published VFR Routes, Terminal Radar Service Areas (TRSA), National Security Areas (NSA), Air Defense Identification Zones (ADIZ), Wildlife/Wilderness Areas.


Weather Theory

The Atmosphere, Coriolis Force, Standard Atmospheric Pressure, Wind and Currents, Convective Currents, Windshear, Microbursts, Atmospheric Stability, The Adiabatic Process, Inversions, Relative Humidity, Determining Cloud Bases, Fog and Fog Types, Clouds and Cloud Types, Air Masses, Fronts, Thunderstorms, Squall Lines, Tornadoes, Turbulence, Icing, Hail, Lightning.


Weather Reports

Flight Service Station, Weather Briefings, HIWAS, METAR, PIREP, TAF, AIRMET, SIGMET, Winds and Temperatures Aloft, Surface Analysis Chart, Low Level Prognostic Chart, Turbulence Chart, Icing Chart, Radar Summary Chart, Satellite Chart.


High Altitude Operations

Required Training, Oxygen Use Requirements, Hypoxia, DCS and Scuba Diving, Other Physiological Factors, Turbochargers, Pressurization Characteristics, Supplemental Oxygen Systems, Aviator's Breathing Oxygen, Rapid and Explosive Decompression, Times of Useful Consciousness.


Navigation Aids: VOR

VOR Introduction, VOR Service Volumes, VOR Inner Workings, VOR Cockpit Instruments, The Cone of Confusion, Reverse Sensing, Time and Distance Calculations, The VOR Trick, VOR Checks.


Navigation Aids: DME

Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) Introduction, Slant Range Distance, GPS Distance.


Navigation Aids: GPS

Global Positioning System (GPS) Introduction, Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM), Fault Detection and Exclusion (FDE), GPS Sensitivity Modes, GPS Errors, Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS).


Magnetic Compass

Compass Basics, Compass Errors (VDMONA), Variation, Deviation, Magnetic Dip, Oscillation, Northerly Turning Errors, UNOS, Compass Turns, Timed Turns, Acceleration Errors, ANDS.


Pitot-Static System

Pitot-Static Introduction, The Airspeed Indicator, The Altimeter, The Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI), Clogs, Pitot Heat, Alternate Static Source.


Vacuum System

Vacuum System Overview, Gyroscope Operation, Rigidity in Space, Precession, Instrument Errors, The Attitude Indicator, The Turn Coordinator, The Heading Indicator.


Instrument Departure Procedures

IFR Departure Introduction, Obstacle Departure Procedures (ODP), Converting FPNM to FPM, Climb in Visual Conditions (VCOA), Standard Instrument Departures (SID).


Alternate Airports

IFR Alternate Airport Introduction, 1, 2, 3 Rule, Standard Alternate Minimums, Non-Standard Alternate Minimums, IFR Fuel Requirements.


IFR En-Route Procedures

IFR Low En-Route Charts, IFR Cruising Altitudes, Minimum En-Route Altitude (MEA), Minimum Obstacle Clearance Altitude (MOCA), Maximum Authorized Altitude (MAA), Minimum Reception Altitude (MRA), Minimum Crossing Altitude (MCA), Off Route Obstacle Clearance Altitude (OROCA), Minimum Sector Altitude (MSA), Fly By and Fly Over Waypoints, VOR Changeover Points, ATC Reporting Points, Cruise Clearances, VFR On Top, ATC Reporting Procedures (MATHCALLS), ATC Reporting Calls (IPTANES).


IFR Lost Communications

Selecting the Route to Fly (MEA), Selecting the Altitude to Fly (AVEF), Arriving at Clearance Limits.


Instrument Approach Types

Precision Approaches, Instrument Landing System (ILS), The Localizer, The Glideslope, Marker Beacons, Approach Light Systems (ALS), Parallel ILS Approaches, LPV and LNAV/VNAV Approaches, Localizer Approaches, Localizer Type Direction Aid (LDA), Simplified Directional Facility (SDF), VOR and RNAV Approaches, PAR, ASR, and No Gyro Approaches, Visual Approach, Contact Approach.


Instrument Approach Procedures

Instrument Approach Introduction, The Approach Plate, Visual Descent Point (VDP), Aircraft Approach Categories, DA and MDA, Circling Approaches, Flight Visibility, Descending Below Minimums, Decision Altitude, Minimum Descent Altitude.

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